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Low voltage command (LVD)

Product introduction: EU low voltage directive update 2014 / 35 / EUIn order to adapt to the new legislative framework (NLF), on March 29, 2014, the official journal of the EU published a new version of low-voltage directive 2014 / 35 / EU to replace the original low-voltage Directive 2006 / 95 / EC.The new directive will be implemented from April 20, 2016. Member States must complete the legislative process by April 19, 2016. In other words, VOC (Declaration of conformity) based on the old low voltage directive will not be accepted after April 20, 2016.Products involved: electrical devices with rated voltage range of 50-1000 V (AC) and 75-1500 V (DC).The new directive aims to ensure easier market access and a higher level of protection of consumers' lives and property:Clarify the responsibilities of manufacturers, importers and distributors;Wider application of electronic means in conformity proof;Through the improvement of defect or unsafe and product tracing system, and through the continuous improvement of the system and supervision of conformity assessment institutions, the safety of consumers is more guaranteed;More perfect market supervision institutions to track and prevent the import of dangerous products;The new directive defines:The manufacturer is solely responsible for conformity assessment,The notified body is no longer involved in the conformity assessment procedure. Reading of Directive 2006 / 95 / ECLVD Low Voltage Directive (2006 / 95 / EC), the goal of LVD is to ensure the safety of low-voltage equipment in use. The scope of application of the directive is to use electrical products with AC voltage between 50V and 1000V and DC voltage between 75V and 1500V. This directive contains all safety rules for this equipment, including protection against hazards caused by mechanical reasons. The design and structure of the equipment shall ensure that there are no hazards when it is used under normal working conditions or fault conditions according to its intended purpose, especially the following hazards shall be evaluated.Instruction rangeThe low voltage directive covers all electrical products with nominal supply AC voltage of 50 ~ 1000V and nominal DC voltage of 75 ~ 1500V, which are required to meet certain electrical safety requirementsFor example, insulation distance requirements, high voltage resistance requirements, flammability requirements, temperature rise limit, service life and abnormal condition test of key parts and components, etc.EN60601-1/EN 61010...Safety testing of industrial, medical and scientific productsEN 60065/UL 6500 /UL1492/CSA C22.2 M1...Safety test of radio and television productsEN 60335-1 /CNS3765/CNS3766Safety test of household appliancesEN 60598/UL 153 /1571/CSA C22.2 No.9/ No.12 ...Safety test of lamps and lanternsEN 60950/UL 1950 /CSA22.2-950...Security testing of information technology productsEN/IEC61558Power transformer productsEN/IEC61029Electric tool productsEN61347Lamp control device productsEN292Basic concepts of mechanical safetyEN60034Industrial motor productsEN60432Light bulb productsEN60730Household automatic control productsEN62094Signal lamp productsEN12157Water pump productsEN71Toy productsEN ISO12100, EN60204Mechanical productsUL1026Cooking and food processing household appliancesUL1082Coffee pot and boiled water household appliancesUL1083Frying pan and frying household appliancesUL982Motor food processing productsUL499Heating electrical productsUL1647Massage and fitness productsUL153General lampsUL507Electric fanUL1310Class II power supply equipmentUL1585Class II and class III transformersUL1411Transformer for audio and videoUL1778Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)UL1993energy saving light LVD declaration method - three methodsThere are three ways to prove that your product complies with the low voltage directive:(1) Adopt the standards negotiated by the European Community;(2) If there is no negotiated standard for the product, the standard of the manufacturer's own country shall be adopted;(3) Use LVD directly.Technical documents to be providedAccording to the requirements, the manufacturer must provide relevant technical documents to the governments of EU member states within a few weeks, and these documents shall be properly kept for 10 years after the end of production. These documents include:(1) Product description;(2) Design drawing, circuit diagram, component list and product structure introduction;(3) List of all or part of the referenced standards;(4) The test report is mainly the test report of safety standards, that is, the specified test requirements must be completed, and the actual measured results must be documented.Declaration of conformity
Project introduction: LVD Low Voltage Directive (2006 / 95 / EC), the goal of LVD is to ensure the safety of low-voltage equipment in use.
Application description: Certification application process: consultation → application → contract signing → technical support (optional) → inspection preparation → inspection submission → repeated test → certificate issuance.
Expected cycle: 5-7 working days
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Low voltage command (LVD)
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EU low voltage directive update 2014 / 35 / EU

In order to adapt to the new legislative framework (NLF), on March 29, 2014, the official journal of the EU published a new version of low-voltage directive 2014 / 35 / EU to replace the original low-voltage Directive 2006 / 95 / EC.

The new directive will be implemented from April 20, 2016. Member States must complete the legislative process by April 19, 2016. In other words, VOC (Declaration of conformity) based on the old low voltage directive will not be accepted after April 20, 2016.

Products involved: electrical devices with rated voltage range of 50-1000 V (AC) and 75-1500 V (DC).

The new directive aims to ensure easier market access and a higher level of protection of consumers' lives and property:

Clarify the responsibilities of manufacturers, importers and distributors;

Wider application of electronic means in conformity proof;

Through the improvement of defect or unsafe and product tracing system, and through the continuous improvement of the system and supervision of conformity assessment institutions, the safety of consumers is more guaranteed;

More perfect market supervision institutions to track and prevent the import of dangerous products;

The new directive defines:
The manufacturer is solely responsible for conformity assessment,
The notified body is no longer involved in the conformity assessment procedure.

 

低电压指令(LVD)


Reading of Directive 2006 / 95 / EC
LVD Low Voltage Directive (2006 / 95 / EC), the goal of LVD is to ensure the safety of low-voltage equipment in use. The scope of application of the directive is to use electrical products with AC voltage between 50V and 1000V and DC voltage between 75V and 1500V. This directive contains all safety rules for this equipment, including protection against hazards caused by mechanical reasons. The design and structure of the equipment shall ensure that there are no hazards when it is used under normal working conditions or fault conditions according to its intended purpose, especially the following hazards shall be evaluated.

Instruction range
The low voltage directive covers all electrical products with nominal supply AC voltage of 50 ~ 1000V and nominal DC voltage of 75 ~ 1500V, which are required to meet certain electrical safety requirements

For example, insulation distance requirements, high voltage resistance requirements, flammability requirements, temperature rise limit, service life and abnormal condition test of key parts and components, etc.


EN60601-1/EN 61010...

Safety testing of industrial, medical and scientific products

EN 60065/UL 6500 /UL1492/CSA C22.2 M1...

Safety test of radio and television products

EN 60335-1 /CNS3765/CNS3766

Safety test of household appliances

EN 60598/UL 153 /1571/CSA C22.2 No.9/ No.12 ...

Safety test of lamps and lanterns

EN 60950/UL 1950 /CSA22.2-950...

Security testing of information technology products

EN/IEC61558

Power transformer products

EN/IEC61029

Electric tool products

EN61347

Lamp control device products

EN292

Basic concepts of mechanical safety

EN60034

Industrial motor products

EN60432

Light bulb products

EN60730

Household automatic control products

EN62094

Signal lamp products

EN12157

Water pump products

EN71

Toy products

EN ISO12100, EN60204

Mechanical products

UL1026

Cooking and food processing household appliances

UL1082

Coffee pot and boiled water household appliances

UL1083

Frying pan and frying household appliances

UL982

Motor food processing products

UL499

Heating electrical products

UL1647

Massage and fitness products

UL153

General lamps

UL507

Electric fan

UL1310

Class II power supply equipment

UL1585

Class II and class III transformers

UL1411

Transformer for audio and video

UL1778

Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

UL1993

energy saving light

 

低电压指令(LVD)

LVD declaration method - three methods

There are three ways to prove that your product complies with the low voltage directive:
(1) Adopt the standards negotiated by the European Community;
(2) If there is no negotiated standard for the product, the standard of the manufacturer's own country shall be adopted;
(3) Use LVD directly.

Technical documents to be provided

According to the requirements, the manufacturer must provide relevant technical documents to the governments of EU member states within a few weeks, and these documents shall be properly kept for 10 years after the end of production. These documents include:
(1) Product description;
(2) Design drawing, circuit diagram, component list and product structure introduction;
(3) List of all or part of the referenced standards;
(4) The test report is mainly the test report of safety standards, that is, the specified test requirements must be completed, and the actual measured results must be documented.


Declaration of conformity

低电压指令(LVD)         低电压指令(LVD)         低电压指令(LVD)         低电压指令(LVD)

 

1、 What are class I products and class II products?
Answer: class I equipment refers to that the accessible conductor parts are connected to the grounding protective conductor; When the basic insulation fails, the grounding protection conductor must be able to withstand the failure false current, that is, when the basic insulation fails, the contactable parts cannot become active parts. In short, the equipment with grounding feet on the power line is class I equipment.

Class II equipment not only relies on 'basic insulation' to prevent electric fouls, but also provides other safety precautions, such as 'double insulation' or 'reinforced insulation'. There are no conditional provisions on the reliability of protective grounding or installation conditions.


2、 Why is the product subject to electrical safety test?
A: This is a question that many product manufacturers want to ask. Of course, the most common answer is 'because it is stipulated in the safety regulations and standards.' If you can deeply understand the background of electrical safety regulations, you will find the responsibility and significance behind it. Although electrical safety test takes up a little time in the production line, it can reduce the risk of recycling products due to electrical hazards. Doing it right the first time is the right way to reduce costs and maintain goodwill.


3、 What is electrical shock?
A: there are many factors causing electrical injury, the most important of which is the electrical injury caused by the current passing through the human body. This kind of electrical injury has a direct impact on human beings. The severity of the injury varies according to the size of electric energy, humidity, contact area, etc. Imagine that when you take a bath in the bathtub, the working hair dryer suddenly falls into the bathtub. This situation makes the current flow from the hair dryer through your body to the ground. At this time, your heart appears irregular palpitations and blood pressure drops, causing irreparable tragedy.


4、 What are the main tests for electrical injury?
Answer: the test of electrical injury is mainly divided into the following four types: dielectric withstand / hipot test: the withstand voltage test applies a high voltage to the power terminal and ground terminal circuit of the product and measures its collapse state. Insulation resistance test: measure the electrical insulation state of the product. Leakage current test: check whether the leakage current from AC / DC power supply to the ground terminal exceeds the standard. Protective ground: detect whether the accessible metal mechanism and other parts are indeed grounded.


5、 Does the safety standard have special requirements for the withstand voltage test environment?
A: for the safety of manufacturers or testers in testing laboratories, it has been practiced for many years in Europe. Manufacturers and testers of electronic appliances, information technology products, household appliances, mechanical tools or other equipment have chapters in various safety regulations, including UL, IEC and en, including the marking of testing area (personnel location, instrument location and DUT location) Equipment marking (clearly indicating 'dangerous' or items under test), grounding status of relevant facilities such as equipment workbench, and electrical insulation capacity of each test equipment (IEC 61010).


6、 What is withstand voltage test?
A: voltage withstand test or high voltage test (hipot test) is a 100% production line test used to verify the quality and electrical safety characteristics of products (such as the standards required by JSI, CSA, BSI, UL, IEC, TUV and other international safety agencies). It is also a production line safety test that is most known and frequently executed. Hipot test is a non-destructive test to determine that the electronic insulating material is sufficient to resist the instantaneous high voltage. It is a high-voltage test applicable to all equipment to ensure that the insulating material is sufficient. Another reason for hipot testing is that it can detect possible defects, such as insufficient leakage distance and electrical clearance during the manufacturing process.


7、 Why do you have to do a pressure test?
A: under normal circumstances, the voltage waveform in the power system is a sine wave. During the operation of power system, the voltage of some parts of the system rises suddenly and greatly exceeds its rated voltage due to lightning strike, operation, fault or improper parameter coordination of electrical equipment. This is overvoltage. Overvoltage can be divided into two categories according to its causes. One is overvoltage caused by direct lightning stroke or lightning induction, which is called external overvoltage. The amplitude of lightning impulse current and impulse voltage are very large, and the duration is very short, which is very destructive. However, because the overhead lines with 3-10kV and below in cities and towns and general industrial enterprises are shielded by factories or tall buildings, the probability of direct lightning stroke is very small and relatively safe. Moreover, what is discussed here is civil electrical appliances. If it is not within the above scope, there will be no further discussion. The other is caused by energy conversion or parameter changes within the power system, such as connecting with no-load line, cutting off no-load transformer, single-phase arc grounding in the system, etc., which is called internal overvoltage. Internal overvoltage is the main basis for determining the normal insulation level of various electrical equipment in power system. In other words, the design of the insulation structure of the product should consider not only the rated voltage, but also the Internal Overvoltage of the product service environment. Withstand voltage test is to detect whether the insulation structure of the product can withstand the Internal Overvoltage of the power system.


8、 What are the advantages of AC voltage withstand test?
A: generally, AC voltage withstand test is easier to be accepted by safety agencies than DC voltage withstand test. The main reason is that most of the tested items will work under AC voltage, and AC withstand voltage test provides the advantage of alternating two polarities to apply pressure to the insulation, which is closer to the pressure that the product will encounter in practical use. Since the AC test will not charge the capacitive load, the current reading is consistent from the beginning of voltage application to the end of the test. Therefore, since there is no stabilization problem required to monitor the current reading, there is no need to gradually increase the voltage. This means that unless the product under test senses a suddenly applied voltage, the operator can immediately apply the full voltage and read the current without waiting. Since the AC voltage will not charge the load, there is no need to discharge the tested equipment after the test.


9、 What are the disadvantages of AC voltage withstand test?
A: when testing capacitive load, the total current consists of electrical resistance current and leakage current. When the electric resistance current is much larger than the real leakage current, it may be difficult to detect products with excessive leakage current. When testing large capacitive load, the total current required is much greater than the leakage current itself. This can be a greater hazard as the operator faces a greater current


10、 What are the advantages of DC withstand voltage test?
A: when the DUT is fully charged, only the real leakage current flows. This enables the DC withstand voltage tester to clearly show the real leakage current of the tested product. Because the charging current is short, the power requirement of DC withstand voltage tester can usually be much smaller than that of AC withstand voltage tester used to test the same product.


11、 What are the disadvantages of DC withstand voltage tester?
Answer: since the DC voltage withstand test does charge the DUT, in order to eliminate the risk of electric shock to the operator handling the DUT after the voltage withstand test, the DUT must be discharged after the test. The DC test will charge the capacitor. If the DUT actually uses AC power supply, the DC method does not simulate the actual situation.


12、 Difference between AC voltage withstand test and DC voltage withstand test
Answer: there are two kinds of voltage withstand tests: AC voltage withstand test and DC voltage withstand test. The breakdown mechanism of AC and DC voltage is different due to the characteristics of insulating materials. Most insulating materials and systems contain a range of different media. When AC test voltage is applied to it, the voltage will be distributed according to the proportion of dielectric constant, size and other parameters of the material. The DC voltage is distributed only in proportion to the resistance of the material. Moreover, in fact, the breakdown of insulation structure often occurs in the form of electric breakdown, thermal breakdown, discharge and other forms at the same time, which is difficult to be completely separated. AC voltage increases the possibility of thermal breakdown than DC voltage. Therefore, we believe that AC voltage withstand test is more stringent than DC voltage withstand test. In practice, if DC is to be used for withstand voltage test during withstand voltage test, the test voltage shall be higher than that of AC power frequency. Generally, the test voltage of DC withstand voltage test is by multiplying the effective value of AC test voltage by a constant K. Through the comparative test, we have the following results: for wire and cable products, the constant k is 3; In the aviation industry, the constant k is 1.6 to 1.7; CSA generally uses 1.414 for civil products.


13、 How to determine the test voltage used in withstand voltage test?
A: the test voltage of the withstand voltage test depends on the market your product is put into. You must abide by the safety standards or regulations of the components of the country's import control regulations. The safety standard specifies the test voltage and test time of withstand voltage test. The best situation is to ask your customers to give you relevant test requirements. The test voltage of general withstand voltage test is as follows: if the working voltage is between 42V and 1000V, the test voltage is twice the working voltage plus 1000V. This test voltage is applied for 1 minute. For example, for a product operating at 230V, the test voltage is 1460v. If the time of applying voltage is reduced, the test voltage must be increased. For example, the production line test conditions in UL 935:

Note: v = maximum rated voltage


14、 How to calculate the withstand voltage test capacity?
Answer: the capacity of the withstand voltage tester refers to its power output. The capacity of the withstand voltage tester depends on the maximum output current x the maximum output voltage. For example: 5000vx100ma = 500VA


15、 Why is the leakage current measured by AC voltage withstand test different from that measured by DC voltage withstand test?
A: the stray capacitance of the tested object is the main reason for the different measured values in AC and DC voltage withstand tests. These stray capacitors may not be fully charged when tested with AC, and a continuous current will flow through these stray capacitors. For DC test, once the stray capacitance on the tested object is filled, the rest is the actual leakage current of the tested object. Therefore, the leakage current measured by AC voltage withstand test and DC voltage withstand test will be different.


16、 What is the leakage current of voltage withstand test
A: insulators are non-conductive, but in fact, almost no insulating material is absolutely non-conductive. When voltage is applied to both ends of any insulating material, there will always be a certain current passing through. The active component of this current is called leakage current, and this phenomenon is also called insulator leakage.

For the test of electrical appliances, leakage current refers to the current formed between metal parts with mutual insulation or between live parts and grounding parts through the surrounding medium or insulating surface without fault applied voltage, which is called leakage current. According to UL standard, leakage current is the current that can be conducted from the accessible part of household appliances, including capacitive coupling current. The leakage current includes two parts, one part is the conduction current I1 through the insulation resistance; The other part is the displacement current I2 through the distributed capacitor. The capacitive reactance of the latter is XC = 1 / 2PFC, which is inversely proportional to the power frequency. The distributed capacitor current increases with the increase of frequency, so the leakage current increases with the increase of power frequency. For example, when thyristor is used for power supply, its harmonic component increases the leakage current.


17、 What is the difference between the leakage current of voltage withstand test and the leakage current (contact current) of power supply?
A: the withstand voltage test is to detect the leakage current flowing through the insulation system of the tested object and apply a voltage higher than the working voltage to the insulation system; The power leakage current (contact current) is to measure the leakage current of the measured object under the most unfavorable conditions (voltage and frequency) under the normal operation of the measured object. In short, the leakage current of the withstand voltage test is the leakage current measured without the working power supply, and the power supply leakage current (contact current) is the leakage current measured under normal operation.


18、 Classification of contact current
A: for electronic products with different structures, the measurement of contact current also has different requirements, but in general, the contact current can be divided into ground leakage current, surface to line leakage current and surface to surface leakage current.


19、 Why do contact current tests?
A: For the accessible metal parts or enclosures of electronic products of class I equipment, good grounding lines shall also be provided as an anti electric shock protection measure other than basic insulation. However, we often encounter that some users arbitrarily use class I equipment as class II equipment, or directly unplug the grounding terminal (GND) at the power input end of class I equipment, so there are certain potential safety hazards. Even so, as a manufacturer, it is obliged to avoid the danger to users caused by this situation. This is why the purpose of contact current test is.


20、 Why is there no standard for setting leakage current in voltage withstand test?
Answer: during AC voltage withstand test, there is no standard due to different types of tested objects, stray capacitors in the tested objects and different leakage currents due to different test voltages.


21、 How to determine the test voltage?
A: The best way to determine the test voltage is to set it according to the specifications required for the test. Generally speaking, we will set the test voltage as twice the working voltage plus 1000V. For example, if the working voltage of a product is 115VAC, we will take 2 x 115 + 1000 = 1230 volt as the test voltage. Of course, the test voltage will also be set differently according to the level of insulation layer.

22、 What is the difference between dielectric voltage withstand testing, high potential testing and hipot testing?
A: these three nouns all have the same meaning, but they are often used interchangeably in the testing industry.

23、 What is the insulation impedance (IR) test?
A: the insulation resistance test is very similar to the withstand voltage test. Apply a DC voltage up to 1000V to the two points to be tested. The IR test usually gives the resistance value in megaohms, rather than the pass / fail representation from the withstand voltage test. Typically, the test voltage is 500V DC, and the value of insulation resistance (IR) shall not be less than a few megaohms. The insulation impedance test is a non-destructive test and can detect whether the insulation is good. In some specifications, the insulation impedance test is conducted first and then the withstand voltage test. When the insulation impedance test cannot pass, the withstand voltage test often fails.

24、 What is the ground bond test?
A: the grounding connection test, which is called the ground continuity test, measures the impedance between the frame of the DUT and the grounding column. The grounding connection test determines whether the protection circuit of the DUT is competent to handle the fault current if the product is broken. The ground connection tester will generate

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